Now listen to two students discussing the assignment.
I don't know about this.
Why not? Sounds okay to me.
Thing is: depending on someone else makes me nervous. My roommate had to do a project like this and the other girl didn't show up to meetings, didn't do any research. My roommate had to do everything herself.
That's a drag. I guess if your partner is irresponsible, you are out of luck.
Exactly. It hurt her grade. I don't want the same thing to happen to me. Right now l'm more concerned with getting a good grade even though I know that's not the lesson the professor has in mind.
Still, it'll be good to listen to everyone's stuff.
Well, I don't know. I mean, at the end of the semester, people are focused on studying for exams. Yeah.
Who has time to put something like this together when they're busy studying?
I can't imagine anyone will be able to really do a good job with it. And everyone will be so preoccupied by then that they probably won't listen anyway. I think the professor's gonna be disappointed. And students…well...we'll all just be frustrated by the whole thing.
Now listen to part of a lecture on this topic in a psychology class.
Here's an example from my own life. Before I started teaching, I worked as a research assistant in
a laboratory for a year.
Well, during my very first week on the job, I made a suggestion to my boss on how we could improve the way we were running an experiment. My suggestion was a good one. The
experiment was successful and we got great results.
Anyway, that first week, because of that one experiment, my boss decided, perhaps without even realizing it, he decided I was a great research assistant and he never changed his mind. After that
first week, I was...l was okay, you know, average. I was a good worker, but I also made mistakes. Everyone does. But whenever my boss introduced me to someone, he'd say, this is John, our star research assistant.
But a co-worker of mine, she wasn't as fortunate, her first week at the lab, she made a big mistake and the lab lost some important data. We recovered the data, but it cost of the lab time and money. Well, our boss concluded that week that my co-worker was unreliable, incompetent. And he continued to think that. But, actually, after that week, she turned out to be a good research assistant, probably better than me. She made some other small mistakes, like I said, everyone does. But our boss thought of her as unreliable cuz he only noticed her mistakes. Task5
Now listen to a conversation between two students about campus housing.
Hi. Kate. How is it going?
Pretty good. I just found out l'm going to be staying on campus during the semester break. Professor Clark asked me to help him with some research.
That's a pretty big deal.
Yeah. I guess it is, but the problem is: the dorm is always closed. So I need to find housing for
Oh, that's rough. But didn't you mention that you had a couple of friends that live in an apartment not too far from campus? Are they gonna be around?
Yeah. Mary and Alan. They say they are gonna stick around here during the break.
Well, so why don't you just stay with them?
I've been thinking about asking them.
And they probably wouldn't charge you anything, right? Just for a couple of weeks.
Yeah. Probably not.i'm sure they'd be fine with it. But since it's between classes and they won't have classes and stuff, l'm worried that…
You're afraid that they might want to party too much?
Right. They'll be on vacation, but l'll have to get up early in the morning to work all day, so we'll be on completely different schedules.
Hmm...well, another possibility is that sometimes you can get special permission to stay at the dorm.
Really? You mean they'd let me stay in my own dorm room? I wouldn't have to move?
Well, you would, actually, because they usually only keep one of the dorms open and it's not the one you're in.
Hmm...l wonder how much they charge.
Well, it's not as cheap as staying with friends, but…
But it would be quieter…
Listen to part of a lecture in a psychology class.
Children like to play. Everybody knows that. When kids play, they have fun. But there's more to play than just having fun. Play is also important if kids are to develop in an emotionally healthy way. From a psychological perspective…well, let's talk about two reasons psychologists believe play benefits kids.
First, play helps children feel more in control. Why? Well, some psychologists have suggested that
small children often feel helpless. They have to depend on other people, adults, for everything. They've got very little control over their own lives. Parents decide when they eat, what they eat,
what they wear. This constant state of dependency can make kids feel uneasy and anxious. But when kids play, they're able to control their world of play. They decide…oh...which toy they're gonna play with and how they're gonna play with it. Maybe they take some building blocks and make a building out of them. They are constructing something with no help at all. So according to
this theory, playing gives children a sense of being in control and they don't feel so helpless. And here's another way play contributes to healthy psychological development. It gives children a
safe way to explore certain urges, desires they have, but ones that don't represent…well...typically acceptable behavior. For example, uh, take the urge to be destructive.
All kids have this urge, but if they try to act on it and start actually breaking things or messing things up around the house, their parents will get upset. But kids are naturally curious. They want
to explore what it's like to be destructive, but they don't want their parents to be upset with them. So by acting out destructive behaviors during play, the problem is solved cuz in play, they' re allowed to be destructive. Think about it. Think of the example before where a kid builds something out of blocks. Isn't it really common to see a kid build a tower or something and then just smash it all down? Destructive in a way, but no harm done, right?