chap4(1) 段落-学生


chap4(1) 段落-学生

Chapter 4 The Paragraph

1. The first railroads were developed in Europe in the sixteenth century. They looked nothing like those of today. The rails were of wood, and the carts, small wooden carts which hauled coal, were drawn by horses. By the early nineteenth century, railroad technology had advanced considerably. Steam locomotives had been developed, and cast iron was used for tracks. In 1825, a railroad line began carrying passengers as well as freight. That same year America’s first known steam locomotive was run on a circular track at Hoboken, New Jersey. Soon American locomotives and railroads were multiplying rapidly. Many short rail lines were laid during the 1830s. These short lines were then linked with one another, and by the early 1840s networks of rails connected all the eastern cities.

2. It is necessary for a person to know how to post a parcel, since almost everyone has relatives and friends living far away and he may like to send them something. Different objects are packed in different ways. Things like bottles of medicine and watches should be put in wooden boxes to avoid breakage. After you have packed the objects, put down your address and that of the addressee on the wrapping. Next, give the parcel to the postal clerk for him to check. He will give you a form to fill in. Having filled in the form, you give it together with the parcel to the clerk. He will weigh the parcel and tell you how much you should pay. You pay the money and get a receipt. Finally, be sure to keep your receipt until you are sure that the addressee has received the parcel.

3. In the middle of the courtyard stood three magnolia trees, all in full bloom. A little girl was hoppling among them. Under one of the trees stood her parents, who, while keeping an eye on her, were examining the blossoms with great interest and admiration. In front of another tree a young couple, fresh and bright as the flowers, were posing for a picture. At one end of the courtyard a group of youngsters had gathered behind an artist painting a half-open flower. At the opposite end a few elderly men and women stood admiring the leafless flowering trees.

4. My little niece, a ten-month-old baby, is the most lovely child I have ever seen. Her face is like a red apple and her eyes are like bright stars. When you carry her in your arms, she likes to put her arms around your neck. All the grownups in the family love her very much and often try to make her smile. But quite often it is she who makes us laugh. Once I winked at her and she smiled. When I did it again, she watched me attentively. Then she tried to imitate. While I closed one eye to wink, she had to close both eyes at the same time, and then quickly opened them again. And that was her way to wink, we all burst into laughter. When we looked at her again, she was staring at us, puzzled, as if she was asking: “What are you laughing at?

5. Whether you do or do not open a gift in the presence of the giver; whether you should or should not turn the plate over to look at the maker’s symbol on the back; whether you put your coat on before or after you leave the host’s house; whether you eat as quietly or as noisily as possible; whether you carry on a conversation during a meal; whether you walk in front of or behind a seated person; whether it is a friendly or an offensive gesture to put your hand on the arm of the person with whom you are talking—these and a thousand other questions are matters of cultural definition. None of them is inherently right or wrong, and none is good or bad manners except as a


Chapter 4 The Paragraph

society defines it so.

6. Although Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee were fierce adversaries during the Civil War, their lives, both military and nonmilitary, had a great deal in common. Grant descended from a family whose members participated in the American Revolution. He received his commission of second lieutenant from West Point and served in the Spanish-American War. He was later summoned by President Lincoln to assume command of the Union Forces during the Civil War. After the Civil War, Grant suffered financial problems and was forced to declare bankruptcy. Lee also descended from a family which engaged in the American Revolution. He, too, received his commission from West Point and later fought in Mexico during the Spanish-American War. His fame as a military strategist during the Civil War, when he was the commander of the Confederate armies, is well known. Although it is not always pointed out by historians, he, like Grant, had financial difficulties after the Civil War and was compelled to declare bankruptcy.

7. My hometown is quite different from what it used to be. Just a little more that ten years ago my hometown was a small quiet place. The houses were small and mean. The streets were for the most part narrow and winding. There were few people in the streets and shops. Now, everything has changed. Looking in every direction from the centre of the town, one sees a long succession of giant, imposing buildings. The streets, whether long or short, are straight and spacious. Crowds of people can be found here and there, hurrying, noisy, and well-dressed. From a dull little village with clusters of shabby houses in the past, my hometown has now transformed into a big city, cheerful, colorful, and prosperous.

8. Despite their obvious differences in length, the paragraph and the essay are quite similar structurally. For example, the paragraph is introduced by either a topic sentence or a topic introducer followed by a topic sentence. In the essay, the first paragraph provides introductory material and establishes the topic focus. Next, the sentences in the body of a paragraph develop the topic sentence. Similarly, the body of an essay consists of a number of paragraphs that expand and support the ideas presented in the introductory paragraph. Finally, a terminator—whether a restatement, conclusion, or observation—ends the paragraph. The essay, too, has a device which brings its ideas to a logically and psychologically satisfying completion: the concluding paragraph. Although exceptions to these generalizations may be observed in modern creative writing, most well written expository paragraphs and essays are comparable in structure.

9. City life and country life can be very different from each other. Psychologically city people live under great stress. They have to rush to and fro every day among crowds of people in limited space. But the pace of life in a country village is gentle and relaxed. People there can always find time to reflect on the attractive landscape. There is also ample space for everyone to move around. Physically city people have to put up with the air and noise pollution as a result of industrialization. They suffer from the jam on roads and the noises from every side. In contrast, people in the countryside live closer to nature and further from pollution. They have fresh air to breathe and can enjoy the changing seasons in peace.


Chapter 4 The Paragraph

10. An individual human existence should be like a river — small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past rocks and over waterfalls. Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flows more quietly and in the end, without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being. The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue…

11. It is difficult for workers to find employment this year. As a result, many recent college graduates are unemployed or taking part-time jobs to meet expenses. Unemployment among high school graduates has meant that large numbers of teenagers are seeking unemployment benefits. The unemployment figures are the highest in decades. Finally, the federal government must contribute large amounts of money to support the growing numbers of people who are receiving welfare assistance.

12. Bag-packing travelling is enjoying a higher and higher popularity among young people in China. First of all, for poor financial condition, young people prefer this economic travelling. Second, compared with under-guide tourists in a package-tour, bag-packers enjoy more freedom in planning the whole travelling. In addition, it brings more fun with chances of visiting long-desired place as long as they like and experiencing diverse folklores as many as they can. Finally, it rewards them with a fit built and a persevere character.

13. There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard sets and bestsellers—unread, untouched. (This deluded individual owns wood-pulp and ink, not book.) The second has a great many books—a few of them read through, most of them dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. (This person would probably like to make books his own, but restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance.) The third has a few books or many—every one of them dog-eared and dilapidated, shaken and loosened by continual use, marked and scribbled in from front to back. (This man owns books.)

14. A “liberated woman” is simply a woman who controls her own life, rather than allowing it to be controlled by other people, traditions, or expectations. A “liberated woman” can be found pursuing any line of work, including housework, or no work at all. She may or may not be married; she may or may not have borne children. She may belong to any race; she may have attained any age. She may be poor or wealthy, educated or illiterate. She acts of her own volition, responsible to herself, and not out of fear of what her mother, lover, or neighbor might say.


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