ISSUE提纲大全[不考G不舒服斯基系列之一]

导读:即使是天才,学校影响也很重要,BillGates223T"Educationisprimarilyapersonalmatter;ithaslittletodowithschoolorcollege."223.教育是个人的事情,与大学基本没有关系①learning可以由个人完成。A现在学的东西很多都可以自学,而学校里教的往往outofda

ISSUE提纲大全[不考G不舒服斯基系列之一]

即使是天才,学校影响也很重要,Bill Gates

223T "Education is primarily a personal matter; it has little to do with school or college." 223. 教育是个人的事情,与大学基本没有关系

①learning 可以由个人完成。A 现在学的东西很多都可以自学,而学校里教的往往out of date.

B 数据表明,home educated 教得更好,可能因为从学生的personality 出发。C例子Edison.

②education is a matter of two sides: teaching and learning. A 帮助学生及时发现错误,指出正确的方法。B 学生学习的不应该只是knowledge, 还有the spirit of persistence, tolerance, the ability to communicate, cooperation.

③教育不仅仅是个人的事,也是社会的事和国家的事。从社会来讲:培养更有效率的workers. 从国家的角度来讲:impart 传统价值观,使社会稳定。

224"Censorship is rarely, if ever, justified."

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224 部分同意

Censorship” is a word which seems to be authoritative rather than democratic, which implies the will of the governors rather than the will of general people

1、从自由与民主角度讲不应该审查

in the Middle Ages, both the Roman Catholic and the Protestant Churches practiced censorship that seemed to be oppressive to any ideas challenging the doctrines of churches and the existence of God; even now, in some authoritative countries, the censorship is used to rule its people by restricting their minds, of course, for the stability of their governing over the people.

2、由于审查的标准很难确定(每个人都有自己的看法),审查结果的合理性值得怀疑

Such cases could be found in Ulysses by J. Joyce and Lady Chatterley’s Lover by

D.H Lawrence, these two great novels were firstly considered to be guilty of obscenity and were put to prohibition by the American government, but turned out to be true masterpieces today. So any form of censorship, to some extent, lags behind the development of ideas and will put more or less a negative effect on their development.

3、但有些审查是必要的

对青少年群体健康发展的考虑,sexual affairs; extreme violence

有些媒体为谋取利益编造吸引人的信息

224 【Position】:Censorship does more good than harm to the wellbeing of society, the family, and the country.

审查制度可以保护社会,国家,与个人的利益。邪教,淫秽作品

缺乏监督的审查制度会被用来压制人们思想,限制人们思想自由,危害民主。比如独裁国家,美国如果剥夺人们的言论,出版自由,那怎么会有今天的社会进步。

国家正确,在人们监督下使用审查制度,造福社会。

224T "Censorship is rarely, if ever, justified." 224. 审查制度很少公正

①有时是不公正的,因为执行的人不可能做到完全客观,甚至有时就按照他们自己的兴趣来行事。如:Copernicus heliocentricism geocentricism

②有时是有效的。如:把电影分级PG, R 等,引导小孩观看。有时禁止共计国家信仰的东西。 ③对特定群体是维护公正。如:禁止媒体受利润驱使,去探究别人的私人生活。

225"People often look for similarities, even between very different things, and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else."

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225 共性和个性都要看

1、人们在接受新事物时往往先找相同点,这是学习的开始

addition and subtraction

2、如果只看共同点忽视个体差异会造成不良影响

different countries, overlook the distinctive culture, character, history, ethic;neglect the individual characteristics of each students; use the same method to educate all the students, individualized education to fulfill each student's potential

3、只有通过比较,同时了解共同点和不同点才能真正认识事物

只有共同点:忽视差异,产生偏见,难以区分事物

只有不同点:找不到规律和联系,不容易接受

印刷媒体与电子媒体

225T "People often look for similarities, even between very different things, and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else." 225. 人们常常寻找相似点,即使是事物之间差别非常大,即便这样做是没有帮助或有害的时候。实际上,我们应该在事情自身范畴内考虑,避免把它比作成其他事物的倾向。

①寻找相似点的原因。A世界上事物纷繁复杂,寻找相似点并进行分类有助于我们更好的认识世界、描述世界。如:动物分成amphibian, mammal, fish等。B把事物归类有助于我们在短时间内迅速把握事物特征。如:Muslin

②虽然从哲学上说,事物之间都是有联系的,但把两个相差很大的事物放在一起是无益甚至有害的。我们可能会忽略他们根本上的不同而关注细枝末节上的相同点。如:尽管都是小公司职员such as accounting,但美国和非洲南部国家的人想法可能就很不一样。

③过分注重相似之处还有害处。A是我们忽略事物本身的特性而注重共性。如:去同一个教堂的教友conversus, 可能实际情况就很不一样,要寻求的心理安慰都很不相同。B我们还可能从一个种类的共性来匆忙的推测一个个体个能有某种行为,这是很不恰当的。如:某一个club 的人都怎么样了,来推测一个个体也会怎么样,而完全不顾其本身特质是要不得的。

226"People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront are more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience."

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226 尽管有些问题的复杂性是一直不变,也有新出现的问题更复杂了

1、承认universal and timeless问题neither more nor less complex

social problems of prejudice and discrimination; interpersonal realationships with people of the opposite gender; power abouse and corruption; discrepancies between the rich and the poor; philosophy of human nature; the origin of universe

2、但是新出现的问题确实比以前复杂

problems unique to today's world

energy crisis-over consumption of finite natural resources; population explosion; environmental deterioration; globalization, increasing interdependencies among nations in political, economical, cultural and military realms

3、challenging problem的出现是和知识增加有关的,知识越多不理解的问题越多,而且这些问题是比以往更丰富的知识都解决不了的,所以问题确实越来越复杂

Einstein:if our owned knowledge is bounded within a circle, when the circle is increasing its size, the circumstance is becoming longer where we have more unsolved problems that we encounter just outside the circumstance.

但是我们解决问题的能力也在增加

226. 人们错误认为现代问题变难,但实际是简单的People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront are more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience.

一、确实现代unique的问题,知识也越来越难掌握 That knowledge and experience have increased,proves the difficulty。确实一些哲学问题在人类历史上没有变难over the course of human beings.

二、现代unique的问题

1.国际金融、贸易

2.伦理

3.环境

三、知识越来越难to master all of our knowledge and experience accumulated in the past is also not an easy task.

1.牛顿巨人理论,至少要爬到肩膀上,但爬的难度增加The presumption to see further, as Newton said, is to climb on the shoulders of giant, which is challenging and arduous stemming from the so advanced knowledge and rich experience.

2.从教育the process of college education可以看出。以前,现在prepare them for profound research in the future

3.虽然不排除对教育需求增加,但是也不可否认更少的人qualified这个事实. fewer and fewer people are qualified to advance knowledge, to some extent, reflects the

complexity of today‘s problems.

四、fallacious rationale behind the statement that increased knowledge and experience dispel the illusion seems that the solved problems which used to be tough and challenging are quite easy at the present day.

1.比如现在觉得发现青霉素不是什么难事,但弗雷明做了hundreds of times的试验

2.yesterday‘s progress in the past seems easy to achieve and nothing challenging today, because we already know the path to the truth and take it for granted.

3.而探索未知领域是最艰难的事

4.同样,如果以未来的眼光度量今天遇到的问题,也是不合适的 not appropriate to understate, which might be effortless for our successors in the future perspective, and which may belittle the endeavors made today.

五、有一些问题没有变难universal and timeless, neither more nor less complex and challenging for any generation than for preceding ones, 尤其是answer-absent,to be or not to be, existence of gods, meaning of life。 事实上这些问题显示了unchanged intellectual struggles

227"To remain vigorous, any academic field needs to be led by truly independent thinkers who are willing to ignore established boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions."

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227 critical态度确实重要,但领域研究paradigm也不能忽视

1、长期建立起来的研究范围与结论是有价值

研究范畴帮助明确研究方向,长期建立的结论是今后研究的基础 Einstein relativity; Hawking the origin of universe

2、领域研究的领导者不可以忽视paradigm

完全突破以往研究范畴和脱离以往理论基础,如果是普通人,可能成果不被接受;作为领导者会使领域内的研究者迷茫混乱

大家都象领导者一样脱开传统的研究体系,此时开展的研究目的性方向性都不明确,理论基础不足,可能研究没有意义的或者错误的东西,领域研究走向危机 Newton's law of motion

3、领域研究领导者应该在批判地看待(取其精华去其糟粕)前人研究基础上独立思考

independent thinker很重要,从前人研究的缺陷中找出值得改进之处而不是,同时敢于有根据地挑战权威,这样才能促进本领域健康vigorous发展

226T"People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront are more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors。This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience." (86) 226. 人们错误地认为他们碰到的问题要比他们前辈碰到的问题更复杂、更具挑战性。这个错觉最终会随着知识和经验的积累消失的

① 确实遇到了更complex的问题。是因为原来没有发生过,Globalization, 各国更加

dependent on each other, On the one hand, the speaker overlooks certain societal problems unique to today's world, which are complex and challenging in ways unlike any problems that earlier societies ever faced. The increasing

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