ISSUE提纲大全[不考G不舒服斯基系列之一]

导读:policy.B色彩鲜艳,开放;整齐划一,传统,封闭。Peopleofdifferentcountriesdressdifferently:theFrenchdressromantically;theAmericansdresscolorfully;theJapanesedressformally.②行为。对人热情,平等。vegetarian-》upperc

ISSUE提纲大全[不考G不舒服斯基系列之一]

policy.

B色彩鲜艳,开放;整齐划一,传统,封闭。People of different countries dress differently: the French dress romantically; the Americans dress colorfully; the Japanese dress formally.

② 行为。 对人热情,平等。vegetarian-》upper class, 不吃猪肉-》Islam

③ 服饰和行为可具有欺骗性deceiving。A.有的人比较conservative B 有的人动机不纯,如:

spy,C国家机器press

209"Progress is best made through discussion among people who have contrasting points of view."

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209 同意

1、不同观点之间的讨论会使人加深对事物的理解,最终得出真理

意见分歧是因为事物本身有复杂性,而人们对其认识尚不透彻,

只有多方观点之间的辩论才能分析清楚本质

In education, discussion between objectivism and constructivism

learn by receiving information from teachers, practice acquired principles and get feed back from teacher

learn by exploring and enquiring knowledge, construct one's own knowledge through self-directed activities or collaborative learning

make a compromise

2、不同观点之间的讨论可以相互启发,引出新的发现

two contrary theories: wave theory and quantum theory. 20 struggling to disprove one or the other . intense debate developed string theory, reconcile them mathematically. to be confirmed, though, provide a law applicable for all matters in the universe

3、讨论中要善于容纳不同观点,分析自己观点的缺陷,否则难以很好地交流

tolerance different opinions, analyze the flaws and shortcomings of theory they support, otherwise impossible meaningful communication, hard to achieve progress; tolerance accelerate progress

209T "Progress is best made through discussion among people who have contrasting points of view." [106]

209. 在持不同意见的人们中展开讨论是获得进步的最佳方式

①意见不同的人可能对某一观点置疑,而真正的理论是要经得起考验的。在置疑之中,一个理论可能经受住了考验the law of conservation of energy 以及perpetual motion ,或者人们发现它只能适用于某些情况。如:经济学的假设:complete competition

②与意见不同的人进行讨论可以A拓宽视野。原来不了解人家的立场,现在吸收了多种文化。如: 发达国家和发展中国家对劳务输出的看法。B挖掘深度,在讨论中,对一个问题可能理解得更透彻。如:不过的专家对euthanasia

③与意见不同的人讨论也有弊病。A有些复杂的问题更适合于独立思考,如:数理化问题 B有

时会陷入争论的怪圈,得不到有益的结论。

210"Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work."

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210 部分同意

1、承认经济因素是选择工作的重要原因

钱在生活中有重要地位,满足生存需要是优先考虑的

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Deficiency needs like hunger, thirst, comforts, esteem

Growth needs like self-fulfillment, realization of one's potential

2、但生存并不是选择职业的最重要因素,兴趣爱好更重要

许多人为了生存临时找了工作,但最终还是努力追求自己的理想

talented musician who both write and sing songs for audience

gave up his career as doctor, start to pursue his ideal work as an musician

3、还有一些人不顾利益,一心投入自己理想的职业

Einstein not profitable Physics; Van Gogh painting lead a peniless life

many preservationist choose to live in the wilderness areas to investigate the life behavior of endangered animals and try their best and ever efforts to help and save the life and habitats of these precious animals.

ISSUE210

没有多少人是按照它自己的特长或者兴趣找工作的,而是更多考虑实际的事情,比如经济上的需求,找工作的难度,他们能得到的薪水。

1 现在没有多少人是按照他们的兴趣去找工作的。这是因为很多人根本不知道自己的兴趣是什么。而这正是我们的教育造成的。我们的学校教育现在过分强调学生的认知和推理能力,而忽略了其他的能力,比如情感、创新等等。学生们被评价的唯一标准似乎就是分数,因此学生们在学校里往往只知道学习再学习,而并不关注自己其他的能力,以至于他们在学习一门课程的时候并不去想我是否要利用这门课的知识将来做点儿什么,在他们看来,学习经济学只是为了取得较高的成绩。Further,家长的误导也导致孩子们不是在按照自己的兴趣生活着,很多家长从小就给自己的孩子灌输pragmatism思想,告诉他们长大以后不是做lawyer就是doctor,因为这是对noble和stable的职业,于是很多孩子在上大学时候就选了法律或者医学,而很多时候他们自己也不知道自己为什么要选这两个专业。

2 另外,社会上还有很多有抱负的人得不到自己感兴趣的工作,这是因为社会也越来越多的强调应聘者的背景和学历。公司一般都要求学生在学校里的成绩达到某个分数才有面试机会,这就导致很多有才能的学生由于average score 不行而得不到自己想要的工作。另一方面,公司更

希望有工作经验的人,而不给新人太多机会,这使得新人们在公司里往往不开心,得不到发挥而对工作失去兴趣。公司给人们设置的很高门槛,并且给的机会太少使得很多人知难而退。转而去找那些简单的工作。

3 我们的社会应该关注这个问题。如果一个社会越来越多的人都在从事自己并不喜欢的工作,那么人们的productivity是很低的,或者说工作者很难在岗位上有所创新,因而这个社会是很难进步的。社会应该鼓励人们去从事自己感兴趣的工作。一方面,家长和学校应该鼓励孩子去追求自己喜欢的东西,而不是强调分数和未来的生活质量问题。比如学校可以多多强调孩子们的emotion,instead of scores,让他们勇敢追求自己的梦想,并为他们的新奇想法提供机会去实现。另一方面,社会应该重视员工的特长而不是仅仅看简历来录取员工,面试的时候更应该注意那些表现出passion和creativity的人,这样会使更多的人有机会从事自己喜欢的工作。

210.根据兴趣找工作

一、确实兴趣很重要,但很多人都只考虑实际需求,因为fierce competition, expectation and suggestion of families and friends, lack of interest

二、兴趣的重要性(51)

三、竞争in reality, most people choose the career which they are not interested in as a result of the absence of choice

1.很多毕业生,flock into,但雇主少,所以没留机会思考个人兴趣,得到工作已经够难

2.尽管有少数牛人可以拿到几个offer,但大多数人都不允许选择

3.所以,一个人一旦得到high-paid的job,他们就会很满足而兴趣就不再重要了

四、父母和朋友的角色parents and friends play a role in forcing people to choose career according to pragmatic demand.

1.父母作为最关心孩子幸福和教育投资者,理所当然地认为material affluence, preceding personal interests, 是comfortable life的基本要素。 所以他们会side with pragmatic当孩子面临选择的时候

2.朋友,作为人们分享idea和emotion的人,他们的意见很persuasive,如果他们劝人们考虑经济因素,那人们通常tend to 选择实际需求

3.事实上,除了本人,没人理解兴趣有多重要what the interest, the mental feeling, means to him,其他人只是aim at visible advantages

五、人们可能也缺乏兴趣it is possible that people who hunt jobs do not find any interest yet

1. 尽管人们should have had a major interest through education whose task就是培养兴趣,但人们可能仍然oblivious to 他们着迷的是什么。

2.可能因为得高分high score的压力太大,使得人们没有时间去考虑兴趣besides pretty grades

3.所以造成选择工作的时候的盲目性

210T "Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a c7jareer based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work." 210. 大多数人找工作是基于钱这种很实际的考虑,费多大的劲找到工作,就希望拿多少薪水。很难得有人能从自己的潜质和兴趣出发去找一份特殊的工作

① 生存需要,人们在供大于求的劳动力市场中没有什么选择。In an over-populated world,

the job market is always the buyer‘s market, which makes it uneasy for job seekers to choose their career at will。

② 社会压力。Peer pressure, keep up with the Joneses.

③ 在选择工作时,实际上是做了pragmatic consideration,也就是考虑自身所具备的真正能

力。

④ 随着社会进步,开始越来越欣赏人们的各种能力。如:对艺术家、哲学家的尊重。

211"Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an individual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions."

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211 同意

1、考虑将来因素很重要

政治:人口问题,建国时人少,考虑当时的因素,鼓励procreation,没有考虑将来因素,一致现在人口爆炸

2、但将来也有种种不定性,根据假设的将来为当前决策,万一假设错误,回造成严重后果

企业:at the end of last century, people witnessed the wax and wane of the dotcom economy

in the middle of 1990s, it is predicted the promising future of Internet companeis. Many people and corporations invested in the network realm. however, few dotcom companies can make much money by providing online services or establishing online business. the dotcom econome turned out to be nothing but foam

3、做决策时要根据当前趋势,预计未来可能性,并遵照一些发展规律

个人:选择专业,当前热门,要看以后会怎样,结合经济规律 computer science

当前不热门,结合社会发展趋势预计将来

211T "Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an individual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions." 211. 一个决定,不管是政府、企业还是个人做出的,都应该更多地考虑到将来的条件而不是眼前的条件

①考虑将来是明智的。正面:说理。反面:举例。A Thinner ozone layer, greenhouse-effect, deforestation. B企业的长远投资 C考虑职业生涯发展

②但我们难以预料将来是什么样子,世界变化太快。如:A现在我们节约能源,说不定以后就开发出了更有效、更清洁的能源。B企业长期就更难预料,如市场变化等 C 个人也是千变万化 ③一味关注未来是以现在为代价的。A一切事情都有机会成本,把资源留到未来等于剥夺了现在的使用权,而资源等是有时间价值的。B现在可能还有很urgent的事情。

212"If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable."

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