丁雪明_2013考研英语翻译

导读:英语中被动语态使用广泛,英语被动语态的句子在译成汉语时,在处理英语原文被动语态时,将英语原文中的被动句译成汉语被动句时,英语名词从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句等,翻译时大多数可译成相对应的汉语,1、以what,whatever,whoever等代词引导的主语从句一般可按原文,一般不及物动词不能构成被动语态,但不及物动词和介词结合构成短语词后,相当于一个及物动词,就可以构成被动

丁雪明_2013考研英语翻译

一般不及物动词不能构成被动语态,但不及物动词和介词结合构成短语词后,相当

于一个及物动词,就可以构成被动语态,形成“不及物动词的被动语态+介词”这样的结构。例如:

A conclusion has been arrived at. 己经得出一个结论。

The design was not approved of at the meeting .该设计在会上未获通过。

英语中被动语态使用广泛,而汉语中被动语态的使用范围却狭窄得多。英语被动语态的句子在译成汉语时,很多情况下都可译成主动句,但也是有一些可保持被动语态,在处理英语原文被动语态时,我们常采用下列方法。

一、译成主动句

1、原文主语仍译成主语

1)The whole nation was armed in a few days. 几天之内全国就武装起来了。

2)The transistors are widely used in communication systems. 晶体管广泛用于通信系统。

2、原文主语译成宾格

1)A new kind of magnifying glass is being made in that factory. 那个工厂正在制造一种新的放大镜。

2)Communications satellites are used for international live transmission throughout the world. 全世界都将通信卫星用于国际的实况转播。

3、译成汉语中带“的”字结构的主动句

1)The crews were trained at Eglin Field, Fla. 机组人员是在佛罗里达州埃格林空军基地训练的。

2)The decision to attack was not taken lightly. 进攻的决定不是轻易做出的。

4、译成汉语的无主句

1)The unpleasant noise must be immediately put an end to. 必须立即终止这种讨厌的噪声。

2)What kind of device is needed to make the control system simple? 需要什么装置使控制系统简化?

5、以“it”为形式主语的被动语态在译文中常要改成主动形成,有时不加主语,有时则加上不确定的主语,例如“有人”,“大家”,“人们”,“我们”等。

不加主语:

It is hoped that? 希望??

It is reported? 据报??

It is said? 据说??

It may be said that? 可以说??

It must be admitted that? 必须承认??

It must be pointed out? 必须指出??

加主语:

It is asserted that? 有人主张??

It is believed that? 有人相信??

It is generally considered that? 大家认为??

It is well known that? 众所周知??

It will be said? 有人会说??

It was told that? 有人曾经说??

二、译成被动句

将英语原文中的被动句译成汉语被动句时,常借助“被”、“遭”、“受”等形式加以表达。例如:

1、Radio waves are also known as radiant energy.

无线电波也被认为是辐射能。

2、Machines are made to run by electricity.

机器由电带动运转。

3、Is the air in this area still being polluted by smog?

这个地区的空气还在受烟雾污染吗?

4、Other processes will be discussed briefly.

其他方法将简单地加以讨论。

5、How long has nuclear power been known to scientists?

核动力为科学家所认识己经有多久了?

第三节 名词从句的译法

英语名词从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句等。翻译时大多数可译成相对应的汉语,但也还有一些其它处理方法。下面分别加以介绍:

一、主语从句

1、以what, whatever, whoever等代词引导的主语从句一般可按原文顺序翻译,例如:

1)What he told me is only half-truth. 他告诉我的只是些半真半假的东西而己。

2)Whatever he saw and heard on his trip gave him a very deep impression. 他此行所见所闻都给他留下了深刻的印象。

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