丁雪明_2013考研英语翻译

导读:翻译中,在翻译过程中,但是在英语中,注意:英语中表示知觉、情欲、欲望等心理状态的形容词,三、经典佳句:TheAcademyhasdefendeditselfagainstsuchchargeofprovincialisminitsselectionbyassertingthatitsphysicaldistancefromthegreatliterarycapitalsoftheworldac

丁雪明_2013考研英语翻译

三、经典佳句:

The Academy has defended itself against such charge of provincialism in its selection by asserting that its physical distance from the great literary capitals of the world actually serves to protect the Academy from outside influences.

【译文赏析】(瑞典诺贝尔)学院被指控在候选人提名时表现为地方主义,所以它为了维护自己的声誉,一再声称:该学院的地理位置远离世界最大的文学都市,实际上有助于保护学院免受外界的影响。

第二节 词义的引申

翻译中,会遇到某些甚至在词典中也找不到适当词义的词。这时如果任意硬套或逐词死译,会使译文生硬甚至造成误解。这时应根据上下文和逻辑关系,从该词的根本含义出发,加以引申,选择较适当的汉语词汇来表达。例如:

1、Every life has its roses and thorns. 每个人的一生都有甜有苦。

2、Cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary particle physics. 宇宙膨胀论是基本粒子物理学中一些公认的理论在科学上得出的似乎可信的推论。

3、Optics technology is one of the most sensational developments in recent years.

光学技术是近年来最具轰动的科学成就之一。

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4、The specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. 一般而言,国家政府对本国科研机构提出的具体要求,是无法详细预测的。

5、Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the points where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more \除非人类终于意识到要把人口减少到这样的程度:使地球能为所有人提供足够的饮食,否则人们将不得不接受更多的“人造食品”。

第三节 词类的转换

在翻译过程中,原文中有些词在译文中需要转换词类,才能使译文通顺、自然,符

合汉语习惯。词类转换的情况可有四种:

一、转译成动词

汉语中经常出现动词,这是汉语的特征,但是在英语中,谓语动词出现的次数远远少于汉语。例如:

1、Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe. 火箭己经用来探索宇宙。(名词转换为动词)

2、The fact that she was able to send a message was a hint,but l had to be cautious.

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她能够给我带个信儿这件事就是个暗示,但是我必须小心谨慎。(形容词转换为动词)

3、Doctors have said that they are not sure they can save his life. 医生们说他们不敢肯定能否救得了他的命。(形容词转换为动词)

注意:英语中表示知觉、情欲、欲望等心理状态的形容词,在系动词后作表语用时,往往可转译成动词。如:confident, certain, careful, cautious, angry, sure, ignorant, afraid, doubtful, aware, concerned, glad, delighted, sorry, ashamed, thankful, anxious等。

4、She opened the window to let fresh air in.

她把窗子打开,让新鲜空气进来。(副词转换为动词)

5、Discovering his ability at copying handwriting, he began imitating signatures of George Washington and Ben Franklin and writing them on the title pages of old books. To lessen the chance of detection, he sent his forgeries to England and Canada for sale and circulation. 他发现他有复制别人手迹的本领之后,就开始模仿乔治·华盛顿和本·富兰克林的签名,

并把这些签名写在旧书的扉页上。为了减少被识破的可能,他就把自己的伪造品寄到英格兰和加拿大去兜售和传销。(动名词、名词转换为动词)

二、转译为名词

1、To them, he personified the absolute power. 在他们看来,他就是绝对权威的化身。(动词转换为名词)

2、This solar cell is only 7% efficient.

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这只太阳能电池的效率只有7%。(形容词转换为名词)

3、They made every effort to help the sick and the wounded. 他们尽了最大的努力帮助病号和伤员。(形容词转换为名词)

4、According to a growing body of evidence, the chemicals that make up many plastics may migrate out of the material and into foods and fluids, ending up in your body.

越来越多的证据表明,许多塑料制品的化学成分会移动到食物或流体上去,最终进入人体内。(代词转换成名词)

5、The new type of machine is shown schematically above. 上图所示是这种新型机器的简图。(副词转换成名词)

三、转译为形容词

1、Independent thinking is an absolute necessity in study. 独立思考对学习是绝对必需的。(名词转换为形容词)

2、The pallor of her face indicated clearly how she was feeling at the moment.

她苍白的脸色清楚地表明了她那时的情绪。(名词转译为形容词)

3、The engineer had prepared meticulously for his design. 工程师为这次设计做了十分周密的准备。(副词转换成形容词)

4、Most teenagers feel no difficulty in learning and operating computers. 绝大部分青少年在学习和操作电脑方面并不觉得困难。(名词转换成形容词)

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5、As he is a perfect stranger in the city, I hope you will give him the necessary help. 他对这城市完全陌生,所以我希望你能给他必要的帮助。(名词转换成形容词)

四、其它词类互译

1、The old professor is physically weak but mentally sound. 这位年迈的教授身体虽弱,但思想健康。(副词转译为名词)

2、The film impressed me deeply.

这部电影给了我深刻的印象。(动词转译为名词,副词转译为形容词。)

3、It was a clear and unemotional exposition of the President's reasons for willing to begin a Chinese-American dialogue. 这篇发言清楚明白、心平气和地说明了总统希望开始中美对话的原因。 (形容词与副词的互相转译)

4、The new mayor earned some appreciation by the courtesy of coming to visit the city poor.

新市长有礼貌地前来访问城市贫民,获得了他们的一些好感。(名词转译成副词)

5、When he catches a glimpse of a potential antagonist, his instinct is to win him over with charm and humor.只要一发现有可能反对他的人,他就本能地要用他的魅力和风趣将这人争取过来。(名词转译成副词)

第四节 增词法

英汉互译过程中,由于两种语言的表达方式的差别,既可能要将词类加以转换,又可能要在用词上加以增减,增词法即是按修辞上和句法上的需要增

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