中考英语拿高分 背单词要高效

导读:这些都是历年中考的重点,1)现在完成时表示在说话之前已经完成或刚完成的动作。Ihaveboughtaten-speedbicycle.Theyhavecleanedtheclassroom.2)现在完成时表示动作从过去开始持续到现在,或者还有可能持续下去的动作或状态。现在完成时常与for和since引导的短语或从句连用。Wehavelivedheresince1976.Theyha

中考英语拿高分 背单词要高效

1) 现在完成时表示在说话之前已经完成或刚完成的动作。

I have bought a ten-speed bicycle.

They have cleaned the classroom.

2) 现在完成时表示动作从过去开始持续到现在,或者还有可能持续下去的动作或状态。 现在完成时常与for 和 since 引导的短语或从句连用。

We have lived here since 1976.

They have waited for more than two hours.

【注意】

一般过去时与现在完成时的区别

过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响;一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用。

试比较:

I saw this film yesterday.(强调看的动作发生过了,不涉及现在)

I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

(6)过去进行时的用法

表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。例如:

I was watching TV when she came to see me.

【注意】

过去进行时和一般过去时都是过去发生的事情,但过去进行时侧重表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或所处的状态,强调动作的连续进行,而一般过去时则表示单纯的过去事实,例如:

They were building a house last month. (上个月正在建造,建造好与否不知)

They built a new house last month. (上个月建造好了,动作已经完成)

(7)过去完成时的用法

过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或所处的状态,过去完成时常和 by , before 等词组成的短语和从句连用。

We had already learned two thousands words by the end of last year.

When we arrived at the station, they had waited for more than twenty minutes.

(8)过去将来时的用法

过去将来时表示从过去某个时间看将要发生的动作或存在地状态,过去将来时较多地被运用在宾语从句中。例如:

They were going to have a meeting.

I told him that I would see him off at the station.

2.动词的语态

语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。

主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。

(1)被动语态

1) 被动语态最基本的句型结构是: be +及物动词过去分词

2) 被动语态中的谓语动词一定要是及物动词

因为被动句中的主语是动作的承受者,某些短语动词如look after, think of, take care of, work out, laugh at等,也可用于被动语态。

The children were taken good care of by her.

【注意】

短语动词中的介词或副词变成被动语态时不可遗漏。

3) 主动语态变为被动语态要加“to”的情况

若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要加\。此类动词为感官动词,如:feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch等。例如:

The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).

4) 主动形式表示被动意义

如wash, clean, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等动词虽然用做主动形式却表示被动的意义。例如:

The food tastes good.

3.非谓语动词

对非谓语动词的考点是:感官动词后不定式作宾语补足语和动词ing形式作宾语补足语的用法;一些特殊动词的动词不定式作宾语补足语时不带to,但变为被动语态时就要带to;有些动词既可接不定式也可接动词ing形式作宾语,但表达的意思不同。这些都是历年中考的重点。

(1)非谓语动词的形式

非谓语动词指的是在句中起名词,形容词或副词作用的动词形式,而不是作谓语的动词形式。 动词的非谓语形式分为动名词,分词,动词不定式。

(2)不定式作宾语补足语

Father will not allow us to play on the street.

(3)不定式作目的状语

He ran so fast as to catch the first bus.

(4)用不定式和分词作补足语都可以的动词

这样的动词有感官动词如:see, hear, look, notice, observe, feel等,使役动词如:have, make, leave, keep, get等。接不定式表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性。

I saw him work in the garden yesterday.

昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调\我看见了\这个事实)

I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调\我见他正干活\这个动作)

昨天我见他正在花园里干活。

(5)用不带to不定式的情况

使役动词如: let, have, make等和感官动词如: see, watch, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to。在被动语态中则to不能省掉。

(6)接动名词与不定式意义不同

1) stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。

stop doing 停止做某事。

2) forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做)

forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做)

3) remember to do 记得去做某事 (未做)

remember doing 记得做过某事 (已做)

4) try to do 努力,企图做某事。

try doing 试验,试着做某事。

5) go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。

go on doing 继续做原来做的事。

6) mean to do 打算、想

mean doing 意味着

4. 容易混淆的常用动词的辨析

(1) say, speak, talk, tell的用法。

1) say表示讲话,作为及物动词使用,后跟宾语或宾语从句。

He said he would go there.

It's time to leave. We have to say goodbye to you.

2)speak表示“讲话”,一般作为不及物动词使用,而有时作为及物动词后面跟上各种语言作为宾语。

Do you speak English?

May I speak to Mr Pope, please?

3) talk表示“谈话”,是不及物动词,与to , about, with等连用,才可以接宾语。

What are you talking about?

Mr Jackson is talking with my father in the office now.

4) tell 表示“告诉,讲述”是及物动词,可以带双宾语或复合宾语。

She told us an interesting story yesterday.

My teacher told me that we would have an English exam the next month.

(2) look, see, watch和watch的用法。

1) look强调“看”这个动作,是不及物动词,常与at连用,然后接宾语。

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