competitor Rhone-Poulenc last year, the companies chose the vaguely Latinate Aventis as the new company name- and settled on English as the company's common language. When monetary policymakers from around Europe began meeting at the European Central Bank in Frankfurt last year to set interest rates for the new Euroland, they held their deliberations in English. Even the European Commission, with 11 official languages and traditionally French-speaking bureaucracy, effectively switched over to English as its working language last year.

How did this happen? One school attributes English s great success to the sheer weight of its merit. It s a Germanic language, brought to Britain around the fifth century A.D. During the four centuries of French-speaking rule that followed Norman Conquest of 1066, the language morphed into something else entirely. French words were added wholesale, and most of the complications of Germanic grammar were shed while few of the complications of French were added. The result is a language with a huge vocabulary and a simple grammar that can express most things more efficiently than either of its parents. What's more, English has remained ungoverned and open to change-foreign words, coinages, and grammatical shifts-in a way that French, ruled by the purist Academic Francaise, had not.

So it's a swell language, especially for business. But the rise of English over the past few centuries clearly owes at least as much to history and economics as to the language's ability to economically express the concept win-win. What happened is that the competition-first Latin, then French, then, briefly, German-faded with the waning of the political, economic, and military fortunes of, respectively, the Catholic Church, France, and Germany. All along, English was increasing in importance: Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, and London the world's most important financial centre, which made English a key language for business. England s colonies around the world also made it the language with the most global reach. And as that former colony the U.S. rose to the status of the world's preeminent political economic, military, and cultural power, English became the obvious second language to learn.

In the 1990s more and more Europeans found themselves forced to use English. The last generation of business and government leaders who hadn't studied English in school was leaving the stage. The European Community was adding new members and evolving from a paper-shuffling club into a serious regional government that would need a single common language if it were ever to get anything done. Meanwhile, economic barriers between European nations have been disappearing, meaning that more and more companies are beginning to look at the whole continent as their domestic market. And then the Internet came along.

The Net had two big impacts. One was that it was an exciting, potentially lucrative new industry that had its roots in the U.S., so if you wanted to get in on it, you had to speak some English. The other was that by surfing the Web, Europeans who had previously encountered English only in school and in pop songs were now coming into contact with it daily.

None of this means English has taken over European life. According to the European Union, 47% of Western Europeans (including the British and Irish)speak English well enough to carry on a conversation. That's a lot more than those who can speak German (32%)or French (28%), but it still means more Europeans don't speak the language. If you want to sell shampoo or cell phones, you have to do it in French or German or Spanish or Greek.

Even the U.S. and British media companies that stand to benefit most from the spread of English have been hedging their bets-CNN broadcasts in Spanish; the Financial Times has recently launched a daily German-language edition.

But just look at who speaks English: 77% of Western European college students, 69% of managers, and 65% of those aged 15 to 24. In the secondary schools of the European Union's non-English-speaking countries, 91% of students study English, all of which means that the transition to English as the language of European business hasn't been all that traumatic, and it s only going to get easier in the future.

24. In the author s opinion, what really underlies the rising status of English in France and Europe is ______.

〔A〕American dominance in the Internet software business

〔B〕a practical need for effective communication among Europeans

〔C〕Europeans eagerness to do business with American businessmen

〔D〕the recent trend for foreign companies to merge with each other

25. Europeans began to favour English for all the following reasons EXCEPT its ______. 〔A〕inherent linguistic properties

〔B〕association with the business world

〔C〕links with the United States

〔D〕disassociation from political changes

26. Which of the following statements forecasts the continuous rise of English in the future? 〔A〕About half of Western Europeans are now proficient in English.

〔B〕U.S. and British media companies are operating in Western Europe.

〔C〕Most secondary school students in Europe study English.

〔D〕Most Europeans continue to use their own language.

27. The passage mainly examines the factors related to ______.

〔A〕the rising status of English in Europe

〔B〕English learning in non-English-speaking E.U. nations

〔C〕the preference for English by European businessmen

〔D〕the switch from French to English in the European Commission


He that wrestles with us strengths our nerves and sharpens our souls.our antagonist is our helper.忘了是谁说的名言了,以对手为话题,写一篇文章,支持或反驳作者的观点。


EQ, A/P, GMO, ISS, ICRC, TARGET, 论语,standard&pool's composite index, 安乐死,核震慑,2010-2012国家中长期人才发展计划纲要,教育公平,经济适用房,等等

英译汉是写一些诸如维基百科等信息共享网站的作用,以及使用者的态度,我搜了半天没收到,是纽约时报上的,关键词有,wolfram mathematics site,free,commercial,volunteer,critical,谁信息检索必将厉害可以帮忙搜一下。








词语解释。题型变了,一组话里有四个或五个不等的划线词,分别解释,不用阐述关联。 1 新大陆的航海大发现,工业革命,文艺复兴,彼得一世改革

2 浪漫主义,现实主义,雨果,狄更斯

3 战国时代,老子,墨子,

4 欧洲债务危机,社会保障,公共产品,私人产品,


公文写作, 写报告,关于本科阶段设置翻译硕士的利弊,根据社会上两种不同的意见,你以教育部的项目负责人的身份向教育部提出意见和建议。


50. 中南大学



1、这门考试我觉得是四门中最难的了,第一部分是选择题(30分,1分1个),开头前7、8个选择题还是挺容易的,后面剩下的题有的我连意思都没看懂,考了一些常见词的深层意思如"bill"在题目中应该是“鸟喙”的意思吧,反正还是有难度的,不过好像没考什么语言学知识。2、阅读理解分为两大部分(总共40分):第一大部分如下:section1 是两篇阅读选择 第一篇文章大概是讲William Shakespeare的老家Stratford-Upon-Avon, Warwick那里的发展状况,主要围绕两种人展开话题 一种是Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC)的演员;一种是镇上当地人(townfolk)各自的谋生手段和游客来这里的主要目的等等。这一篇有5个选择题。section2主要是讲的研究人员调查在世界各地是否facial expressions 所表达的意思都相同,如笑表示快乐等,也有5个选择题。这一部分有20分,每一篇10分。第二大部分:两篇阅读问答;第一篇主要是讲drowsiness 所产生的危害已经成为美国社会的隐形杀手之类,专家提倡要take a on-the-job nap ,并列举了几场由于drowsiness导致的悲剧,后面是3个问答题。第二篇好像是讲的男孩和女孩在个性形成过程的情况,文章有难度没看懂,有2个问答题,这一大部分有20分。

第三大部分是写作,要求是400字左右题目是 Translation as a Bridge 颇有点延续2011年题目(The Relationship between translation theory and practice )的风格。这一科总体难度偏大。



第一部分(30分30英汉互译的词语和英文缩写;UNESCO ASEAN APEC UNCF WIPO GNP UPU OPEC disaster preparedness, security margin trading, haphazard investment,quantitive easing monetary policy,credit risk,structual and imported inflation 还少一个没回忆起来想起再补上;中译英:朝阳产业,最低生活保障制度,风险防范机制,生态移民,载人航天,探月工程,千人计划,节能减排,农产品流通体制,扩大市场准入,文明联盟,阶梯计价,胶囊公寓,保税区(还少一个再补)。

第二部分 source text1:

it is becoming clear that a whole range of phenomena are transmitted through networks of friends in ways that are not entirely understood: happiness and depression, obesity, drinking and smoking habits, ill-health, the inclination to turn out and vote in elections, a taste for certain music or food, a preference for online privacy , even the tendency to attempt or think about suicide. They ripple through networks “like pebbles thrown into a pond”, says Nicholas Christakis, a medical sociologist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, who has pioneered much of the new work.

At first sight, the idea that we can catch the moods, habits and state of health not only of those around us, but also those we do not even know seems alarming. It implies that rather than being in charge of where we are going in life, we are little more than back seat drivers, since most social influence operates at a subconscious level. But we need not be alarmed, says Duncan Watts, a sociologist at Columbia University, New York. “Social influence is mostly a good thing. We should embrace the fact that we?re inherently social creatures and that much of who we are and what we do is determined by forces that are outside the little circle we draw around ourselves.” What?s more, by being aware of the effects of social contagion we may be able to find ways to counter it, or use it to our own benefit. “There?s no